By John G. Bartlett
Designed to supply easy access to the factors with which to struggle infectious ailment by means of targeting choice, right doses, expenditures, and unintended effects of antimicrobial brokers, the 2004 notebook of Infectious ailment remedy attracts greatly from concepts made by means of the facilities for disorder regulate, the scientific Letter, the yank clinic Formulary provider, and the AMA's Drug reviews. Tabular fabric has been up-to-date to incorporate all newly licensed antibiotics, in addition to new strategies for administration.
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Extra resources for 2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy
Pneumoniae—levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin; anaerobes—gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are most active; ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin are least active; side-effects: trovafloxacin has a FDA-mandated black box warning about hepatotoxicity and revised indications in 1999 that restrict use to infections for which alternative antibiotics are unavailable. 7 . Beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor. Amoxicillin + clavulanate (Augmentin), ticarcillin + clavulanate (Timentin), ampicillin + sulbactam (Unasyn), and piperacillin + tazobactam (Zosyn).
Probenecid: Chills, fever, headache, rash, nausea in 30–50% Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) See quinolones Clarithromycin (Biaxin) Rash, C. difficile colitis, GI intolerance (oral) Blood dyscrasias, hepatic damage, neutropenia, neuromuscular blockade, eosinophilia, fever, metallic taste, phlebitis at IV infusion sites, esophageal ulceration CNS—anxiety, confusion, depression, somnolence, disorientation, headache, hallucinations, tremor, hyper-reflexia, increased CSF protein, and pressure (dose related and reversible) (contraindicated in active alcoholics; twitching and seizures prevented with large doses of pyridoxine—100 mg tid) Liver damage, malabsorption, peripheral neuropathy, folate deficiency, anemia Coma, seizures (contraindicated in epileptics), hypersensitivity reactions, heart failure, arrhythmias Rash, fever, nausea, anorexia, neutropenia—sufficiently severe to require discontinuation in 30–40% of HIV infected patients Blood dyscrasias (methemogloblinemia and sulfahemoglobinemia ± G6PD deficiency)—warn patient to observe for cyanosis and dark urine; nephrotic syndrome; blurred vision; photosensitivity, tinnitis; insomnia; irritability; headache (transient) Hypoalbuminemia, epidermal necrolysis, optic atrophy, agranulocytosis, peripheral neuropathy, aplastic anemia, “sulfone syndrome” (fever, exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, adenopathy, methemo-globinemia, and anemia—treat with steroids), renal papillary necrosis Dose related elevated CPK with or without symptoms or myopathy (reversible) Elevated transaminases; neuropathy Clindamycin (Cleocin) Diarrhea (frequency of C.
5 mg q12h Interferon alpha Nonrenal 2–3 Same ? 3 35 500 mg q24h 500 mg q24h Usual 250 mg q24h 250 mg q48h Linezolid Nonrenal 5–7 5–7 600 mg bid 600 mg bid Usual Usual Usual Lomefloxacin Renal 8 45 400 mg q24h — Usual 400 mg; then 200 mg qd Unknown Loracarbef Renal 1 32 200–400 mg q12h — Usual 200–400 mg q24h 200–400 mg 5d Mefloquine Hepatic 2–4 wk 2–4 wk 1250 mg × 1 250 mg q wk — Usual Usual Usual Meropenem Renal 1 — 1 g q8h Usual 500 mg q12h Methenamine hippurate mandelate Renal Renal 3–6 3–6 Methicillin Renal(hepatic) Metronidazole ?
2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy by John G. Bartlett