By Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie
Brillante et courte synthèse, suggestive et instructive, des résultats de près d’un demi-siècle de recherches historiennes sur le climat.
Un élément essentiel dans les débats en cours sur l’avenir de l. a. planète.
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3. 23 June: disobeying orders to wait, the Eastern Route Army divides. One wing attacks Nagato province on Honshu. 4. 23 June: the other wing attacks Hakata Bay, but is unable to land because of the resistance mounted from behind the defensive wall. The Mongols occupy Shiga and Noki islands, where they are subjected to attacks from the Japanese. ‘Little ship’ raids occur in the bay. 5. 30 June: the Eastern Route Army withdraws to Iki. 6. Late July/early August: the Southern Route Army arrives from China and combines with the Eastern Route Army in the vicinity of Hirado.
The Khan’s plan was that the invasion fleet would attack Tsushima and Iki on the way, thus safeguarding their lines of communication, and then make landfall on the Kyushu mainland in Hakata Bay. The corresponding Japanese plans, fed by reliable intelligence, were to contest them at every point using local gokenin. Yet this seems to have been the limit of any application of knowledge of the enemy, and had it not been for the existence of letters, prayers and ambassadorial reports in the years leading up to 1274 one might well have drawn the conclusion that the first Mongol invasion was a complete surprise.
Hakata also appears to be the first place that the exploding bombs were used. Both the soft-cased and iron-cased varieties caused amazement to the defenders, although it may be that their noise, combined with the gongs and drums, resulted in more problems for the Japanese men and horses than were caused by actual fragments from the explosions. The compiler of Hachiman Gudokun is also evidently struck by the control exercised over the Mongol Army by its general using drums and gongs. Nothing comparable to Mongol infantry tactics had been seen in Japan since the abandonment of Chinese- TOP This well-known section of the Mongol Invasion Scrolls shows Takezaki Suenaga, the man by whom the scrolls were commissioned in order to press his claims for reward.
Abrégé d'histoire du climat : Du Moyen Âge à nos jours by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie