By David W. Chapman
David W. Chapman examines moment Temple and early rabbinic literature and fabric continues to be with a view to exhibit the diversity of historic Jewish perceptions approximately crucifixion. Early Christian literature is then proven to mirror know-how of, and interplay with, those Jewish perceptions. historic Jewish historic debts of crucifixion are tested, magical literature is analyzed, and the proverbial use of crucifixion imagery is studied. He will pay specific realization to Jewish interpretations of key outdated testomony texts that point out human physically suspension in organization with execution. earlier reviews have validated how pervasive in antiquity was once the view of the go as a bad and shameful demise. during this quantity, the writer offers extra facts of such perspectives in old Jewish groups. extra optimistic perceptions may be connected to crucifixion insofar because the dying might be linked to the blameless patient or martyr in addition to with latent sacrificial pictures. Christian literature, proclaiming a crucified Messiah, betrays information of those quite a few perceptions via looking to reject or remodel detrimental stereotypes, or via embracing a few of these extra confident institutions. hence early Christian literature at the move indicates, to a better measure than is usually famous, a mirrored image upon a number of the Jewish perceptions of the go in antiquity
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Additional info for Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion
For the etymology from ibü C o h n relies on Elieser B e n - Y e h u d a and Naphtali H. Tur-Sinai, Thesaurus Totius Hebraitatis et Veteris et Recentioris [= ΓΤΊΏ2Π ]wbîl φΐ2], 16 vols. (Jerusalem: H e m d a , 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 5 9 ) , 11:5482. Actually B e n - Y e h u d a is m o r e cautious than C o h n (stating " 2 ^ 2 ? : Π Γ ) ρ ^ I K T ' ) ; and, m o r e significantly, B e n - Y e h u d a draws an explicit connection between the H e b r e w and its A r a m a i c counterpart ("3^25 'ΟΊΧΠ Jft"; see p .
Psa. 1 1 : 7 ) . Baumgarten also claims similar support from Simeon b . S h e t a h ' s hanging of eighty witches in Ashkelon ( Π ^ Π in m. Sanh. 6:4; JUia^SI my. Hag 2:2 [78a]; K a ^ S ? Τ Γ Ή i n j ; . Sanh. 6:9 [ 2 3 c ] ) . 69 70 (3) T h e essence of crucifixion, as practiced b y t h e R o m a n s , w a s "the deliberate protraction of torture" combined with the disgrace of leaving the b o d y unburied. l 1-12) - the Qumranites could not have envisioned their law to execute someone b y "hanging h i m on the t r e e " as involving crucifixion.
6 9 Baumgarten (p. 4 7 4 ) notes a similar account to that o f Jakim in the execution o f Balaam as recorded in b. Sanh. 106b. A s indirectly acknowledged in B a u m g a r t e n ' s footnote 12, the major contribution to B a u m g a r t e n ' s argument in the Balaam traditions actually c o m e s in R a s h i ' s medieval c o m m e n t a r y on the Bavli here (esp. note T h e evidence from Ginzberg that Baumgarten cites in his footnote 12 does not help his case. Baumgarten (p. 4 7 6 ) also cites B ü c h l e r ' s references to execution b y hanging in the Ben Stada accounts (b.
Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion by David W. Chapman