By Harold L. Hawkins, Teresa A. McMullen, Richard R. Fay
The auditory process provides many positive aspects of a posh computational atmosphere, in addition to supplying various possibilities for computational research. This quantity represents an outline of computational methods to figuring out auditory method functionality. The chapters percentage the typical standpoint that advanced info processing has to be understood at a number of degrees; that disciplines resembling neurobiology, psychophysics, and machine technological know-how make important contributions; and that the tip fabricated from computational research can be the improvement of formal models.
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Extra resources for Auditory Computation
Beranek (1986) and Fletcher (1992) give more detailed discussions of acoustic clements. Although others have used mechanical velocity and specific acoustic impedance (P/V) to define sound flow through the car (Allen 1986), here I consistently usc volume velocities and acoustic impedance (P/U) as 2. External- and Middle-Ear Function 23 acoustic variables. This choice of variables permits some useful simplifications. (1) As is discussed later, the units of acoustic power and energy are identical to those for their mechanical and electrical analogs.
Accurately computing Bessel and Neumann functions with large arguments (ka > 10) is not trivial; the accuracy of the methods we used decreased at frequencies above 5kHz. effect of the torso and shoulders is small and appears to be restricted to the lower frequencies (Kuhn 1979). However, the pinna, concha, and asymmetries are prominent at frequencies higher than a few kilohertz where the wavelength of sound is less than lOfold the dimensions of these structures (Teranishi and Shaw 1968; Shaw 1974a; Calford and Pettigrew 1984).
10) is similar to measurements made by Shaw and others (Shaw 1974a,b). Low-frequency sounds with large wavelengths produce pressures at the tympanic membrane that are similar to the pressure in the plane wave such that PT/P pw = 1 (OdB). In the middle frequencies, diffraction about the head and the horn and tube properties of the concha and canal result in a broad peak in pressure magnitude at the tympanic membrane of about 17 dB. (Shaw's measurement of PT/Ppw in human ears suggested an even broader peak.
Auditory Computation by Harold L. Hawkins, Teresa A. McMullen, Richard R. Fay